Pyridine was first synthesized in 1876 from acetylene and hydrogen cyanide. The reaction of aldehydes or ketones with ammonia is the most general synthetic reaction for the manufacture of pyridine bases and allows the preparation of various pyridine derivatives. Reaction of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde with ammonia is the most widely used method for pyridine production .Pyridine can also be prepared from cyclopentadiene by ammoxidation, or from 2-pentenenitrile by cyclization and dehydrogenation. Furfuryl alcohol or furfural reacts with ammonia in the gas phase to give pyridine .
Pyridine is widely used as a solvent in organic chemistry and in industrial practice.
Pyridine is an effective, basic solvent that is relatively unreactive, which makes it a good acid scavenger. Pyridine is the solvent of choice for acylation and dehydrochlorination reactions. It is also used as a solvent for paint, rubber, pharmaceuticals,polycarbonate resins and textile water repellants. Large amounts of pyridine are used
as an intermediate in the manufacture of substituted pyridines, piperidine, agrochemicals(herbicides: diquat, paraquat; insecticide: chlorpyrifos; fungicide:pyrithione), pharmaceuticals and other products .